National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized since the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the house team while half the groups have only eight home video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the additional home game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in contravention of the typical business structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks too.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined until much later since the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.