2015 Topps Nfl Football Cards

National Football League

Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:

No. of teams 32

Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website

including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.

eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the private video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.

Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the department champs.

1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.

The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.

These actions are among many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve player safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 home video games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.

The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Business structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.

Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..

In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.

The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.

The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the championship game prize.

The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.

In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.

The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such profits equally among groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Many NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.

The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in breach of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through extreme earnings.

Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest expense item, gamer salaries, is capped.

Routine season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.

Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games happening on a lot of weeks also.

NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.

In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.

2015 Topps Nfl Football Cards