National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the private games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring profitable television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine video games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and including a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits equally among teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest cost product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later on since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.