National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the home group while half the groups have only 8 home video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the extra house video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such earnings equally among teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in contravention of the common business structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest expense product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later on because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.