National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used given that the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where 2 groups were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competition of having more home games, the additional home game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such earnings equally among groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.