National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual video games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used considering that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just eight house games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional home game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits similarly among teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the biggest cost product, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later on since the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.