National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had been come across where two groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial duties, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person team will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest cost product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.