National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific video games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth teams, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the home group while half the teams have just 8 home games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competition of having more home games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.