National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the private games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used because the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had actually been experienced where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the additional house game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits equally among teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in breach of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest expense item, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least once a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.