National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used because the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine video games as the home team while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competition of having more house games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The four division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest expense item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified until much later on because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.