National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used since the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the teams have only eight house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such earnings equally amongst teams, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in breach of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified until much later on since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.