National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the specific video games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where 2 groups were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining financially rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine video games as the home team while half the groups have just eight house video games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home games, the additional house game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest expense item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.