National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games representing many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used because the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting lucrative television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 house games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional house game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in conflict of the typical business structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest cost product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.