National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the private games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used considering that the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been encountered where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on minimizing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such profits equally among teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.