National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had actually been come across where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting lucrative tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the house group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such earnings similarly amongst teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest cost product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified till much later since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.