National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the specific video games representing a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized because the league's production in 1920, however no situation had actually been encountered where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the house group while half the groups have just eight house games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue similarly amongst teams, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later on since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.