National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the individual video games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine video games as the home group while half the groups have only eight home video games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competition of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such earnings similarly among groups, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later on since the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.