National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used because the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been experienced where two teams were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the teams have only eight home games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more house video games, the additional home game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the typical business structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest expense item, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.