National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used since the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had actually been encountered where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have only eight home video games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in contravention of the typical business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.