National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used given that the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had actually been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting profitable tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine video games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 house games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competition of having more home games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later since the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.