National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the private games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where 2 groups were tied for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining profitable tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competition of having more house video games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such revenue equally among groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in contravention of the typical business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest expense product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later on because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.