National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the specific games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used considering that the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had actually been experienced where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the home group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or dedicated conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally among teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest cost product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.