National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had been encountered where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four growth teams, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine video games as the home group while half the teams have just 8 home video games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the additional house game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits similarly among teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in breach of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the largest expense item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on many weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.