2013 Nfl Season Super Bowl

National Football League

Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of groups 32

Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website

consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.

eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Founding and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.

At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used given that the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had actually been encountered where 2 teams were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the division champs.

1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting lucrative television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.

These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the teams have just eight house games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of house games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.

The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.

Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..

In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.

The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.

The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including granting the championship game trophy.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.

In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.

The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.

The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.

, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.

According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.

Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest cost product, gamer salaries, is topped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening video game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.

A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least once a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks too.

NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.

Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later on because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local events that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.

2013 Nfl Season Super Bowl