National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual games representing many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had actually been encountered where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the groups have just eight home video games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or committed conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits similarly amongst teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the largest cost product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks also.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.