National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the house group while half the groups have only 8 house games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such income equally among teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in contravention of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest expense item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not identified till much later because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.