National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the specific games representing a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting profitable tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine video games as the house group while half the groups have only 8 home games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest cost product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on because the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.