National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used because the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been come across where 2 groups were connected for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting profitable television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house team while half the groups have just 8 house games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra house game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits equally among groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.