National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been used because the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the home group while half the groups have just eight home games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional home game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and including a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest expense item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified until much later because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.