National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private video games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where 2 teams were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine games as the house group while half the teams have just eight home games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense product, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later on because the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.