National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used considering that the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion teams, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the home group while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such income equally among groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the typical business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest cost product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks too.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified till much later on because the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.