National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used because the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had actually been encountered where two teams were tied for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television agreements and the addition of four growth groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the groups have just 8 house video games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income similarly amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the biggest cost product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on since the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.