National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the house group while half the groups have just eight home games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional house game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income similarly among teams, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least when a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks also.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.