National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champion between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where 2 groups were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 house games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally among teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in conflict of the typical business structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on since the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.