National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual video games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had actually been encountered where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting profitable tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 house games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more home games, the extra house video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income created through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest expense product, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.