National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the specific games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized because the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine video games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 house games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more house video games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial duties, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such income similarly amongst teams, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest expense item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on a lot of weeks also.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later because the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.