National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual video games representing many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where two teams were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the teams have only 8 home games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such income similarly amongst teams, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in conflict of the common business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest cost item, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks as well.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.