National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used since the league's development in 1920, but no situation had actually been come across where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the home team while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional home video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and an additional 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits similarly among groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in breach of the typical business structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest expense item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
The majority of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.