National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had been come across where two groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional home game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such income similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in conflict of the typical business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest expense product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least once a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.