National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had actually been come across where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups nine games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 home games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such revenue equally amongst groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in breach of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.