National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the teams have just eight house games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such revenue equally among teams, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person team will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest expense product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later on since the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.