National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the individual games representing a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where two groups were tied for initially. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house team while half the teams have only eight house games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest expense item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games taking place on the majority of weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.