National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used since the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where 2 teams were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining profitable television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the teams have just eight house video games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competition of having more house video games, the additional home game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst groups, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not dominate the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on many weeks too.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.