National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used since the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had actually been experienced where two groups were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining profitable tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competition of having more home games, the extra home game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such income similarly amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in breach of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest cost product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.