National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used because the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had actually been encountered where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league quickly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just eight house games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such income similarly among groups, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.