National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the result of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the home group while half the groups have only 8 house games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competition of having more house games, the additional home game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial duties, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits equally among teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in conflict of the normal business structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest expense item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.