National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used since the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where 2 groups were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the home group while half the groups have just 8 house games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such profits equally amongst groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in conflict of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest expense product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.