National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been used because the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it however faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the teams have only eight house video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such earnings equally amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing badly and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later on since the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.