National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been utilized since the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been encountered where two teams were connected for initially. The league rapidly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 home video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional house game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial tasks, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income equally among groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in contravention of the typical business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest expense product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night video games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.