National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been used since the league's development in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the groups have just eight house games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional home game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and an additional 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such profits similarly among teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest cost product, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on because the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.